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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Anlage I Authorized scientific use only UK: Colloquially called the zombie drug  .
Inside a Krokodil Cookhouse". British Journal of Anaesthesia. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Abuse trends of an old drug".
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Journal of Addictive Diseases. Bull World Health Organ.
Explicit use of et al. A Monstrous Drug with Deadly Consequences. Journal of Addictive Disorders ; Retrieved 17 April from Breining Institute at http: Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
The emergence of krokodil and excessive injuries among people who inject drugs in Eurasia". International Journal of Drug Policy.
Journal of Medical Internet Research. Retrieved 3 April An overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis".
National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 5 May R; Triggle, David J Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. The harmful chemistry behind krokodil desomorphine synthesis and mechanisms of toxicity.
Retrieved 12 January A case of krokodil-induced skin necrosis in an intravenous drug user". Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. The American Journal of Medicine.
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Agonists abridged; see here for a full list: Retrieved from " https: Cinema fires caused by ignition of nitrocellulose film stock were the cause of the Dromcolliher cinema tragedy in County Limerick in which 48 people died and the Glen Cinema disaster in Paisley, Scotland , which killed 69 children.
Today, nitrate film projection is normally highly regulated and requires extensive precautionary measures including extra projectionist health and safety training.
Projectors certified to run nitrate films have many precautions, among them the chambering of the feed and takeup reels in thick metal covers with small slits to allow the film to run through.
The projector is modified to accommodate several fire extinguishers with nozzles aimed at the film gate.
The extinguishers automatically trigger if a piece of flammable fabric placed near the gate starts to burn. While this triggering would likely damage or destroy a significant portion of the projection components, it would prevent a fire which could cause far greater damage.
Projection rooms may be required to have automatic metal covers for the projection windows, preventing the spread of fire to the auditorium.
The Dryden Theatre at the George Eastman Museum is one of a few theaters in the world that is capable of safely projecting nitrate films,  and regularly screens films to the public.
Nitrocellulose was found to gradually decompose, releasing nitric acid and further catalyzing the decomposition eventually into a flammable powder.
Decades later, storage at low temperatures was discovered as a means of delaying these reactions indefinitely.
The great majority of films produced during the early 20th century are thought to have been lost either through this accelerating, self-catalyzed disintegration or through studio warehouse fires.
Salvaging old films is a major problem for film archivists see film preservation. Nitrocellulose film base manufactured by Kodak can be identified by the presence of the word 'nitrate' in dark letters along one edge; the word only in clear letters on a dark background indicates derivation from a nitrate base original negative or projection print, but the film in hand itself may be a later print or copy negative, made on safety film.
Acetate film manufactured during the era when nitrate films were still in use was marked 'Safety' or 'Safety Film' along one edge in dark letters.
Cellulose is treated with sulfuric acid and potassium nitrate to give cellulose mononitrate. This was used commercially as 'celluloid', a highly flammable plastic used in the first half of the 20th century for lacquers and photographic film.
While cellulose acetate-based so-called "safety film", notably cellulose diacetate and cellulose acetate propionate, was produced in the gauge for small-scale use in niche applications such as printing advertisements and other short films to enable them to be sent through the mails without the need for fire safety precautions , the early generations of safety film base had two major disadvantages relative to nitrate: The cost of the safety precautions associated with the use of nitrate was significantly lower than the cost of using any of the safety bases available before These drawbacks were eventually overcome with the launch of cellulose triacetate base film by Eastman Kodak in The crucial advantage cellulose triacetate had over nitrate was that it was no more of a fire risk than paper the stock is often erroneously referred to as "non-flam": Polyester is much more resistant to polymer degradation than either nitrate or triacetate.
Although triacetate does not decompose in as dangerous a way as nitrate does, it is still subject to a process known as deacetylation, often nicknamed "vinegar syndrome" due to the acetic acid smell of decomposing film by archivists, which causes the film to shrink, deform, become brittle and eventually unusable.
PET, like cellulose mononitrate, is less prone to stretching than other available plastics. By the late s, polyester had almost entirely superseded triacetate for the production of intermediate elements and release prints.
Triacetate remains in use for most camera negative stocks because it can be "invisibly" spliced using solvents during negative assembly, while polyester film can only be spliced using adhesive tape patches or ultrasonically, both of which leave visible marks in the frame area.
Also, polyester film is so strong, it will not break under tension and may cause serious damage to expensive camera or projector mechanisms in the event of a film jam, whereas triacetate film breaks easily, reducing the risk of damage.
Many were opposed to the use of polyester for release prints for precisely this reason, and because ultrasonic splicers are very expensive items, beyond the budgets of many smaller theaters.
In practice, though, this has not proved to be as much of a problem as was feared. Rather, with the increased use of automated long-play systems in cinemas, the greater strength of polyester has been a significant advantage in lessening the risk of a film performance being interrupted by a film break.
Despite its self-oxidizing hazards, nitrate is still regarded highly as the stock is more transparent than replacement stocks, and older films used denser silver in the emulsion.
The combination results in a notably more luminous image with a high contrast ratio. Because of its explosive nature, not all applications of nitrocellulose were successful.
John Wesley Hyatt created the winning replacement, which he created with a new material he invented called camphored nitrocellulose—the first thermoplastic , better known as celluloid.
The invention enjoyed a brief popularity, but the Hyatt balls were extremely flammable, and sometimes portions of the outer shell would explode upon impact.
An owner of a billiard saloon in Colorado wrote to Hyatt about the explosive tendencies, saying that he did not mind very much personally but for the fact that every man in his saloon immediately pulled a gun at the sound.
Pressure was applied to the liquid in the cylinder, which resulted in a uniform compression on the nitrocellulose mass, compressing it into a uniform sphere as the heat vaporized the solvents.
The ball was then cooled and turned to make a uniform sphere. In light of the explosive results, this process was called the "Hyatt gun method".
Collodion , a solution of nitrocellulose in ether and ethanol , is a flammable liquid. When dry, nitrocellulose is explosive and can be ignited with heat, spark, or friction.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.
The discussion page may contain suggestions. LD 50 median dose. Annales de Chimie et de Physique. Schönbein, Christian Friedrich Bericht über die Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel.
In a letter, he subsequently communicated his discovery to the French Academy of Sciences: Chemistry and Technology of Explosives.
A History of Explosives. A settlement has been reached between the Goodwin Film and Camera Company and the Eastman Kodak Company concerning the suit brought in the Federal District Court by the former for an accounting of the profits derived from the sale of photographic films prepared according to the patent taken out by the late Rev.
Hannibal Goodwin of Newark in The details of it have not been announced, but it is understood to provide for tile payment of a large sum of money by The Good, the Bad and the Multiplex.
Archived at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 11 March In Smither, Roger; Surowiec, Catherine. This Film is Dangerous: A Celebration of Nitrate Film.
Journal of the SMPE. Making Kodak Film Expanded 2nd ed.